Sunday, February 23, 2020
Topic is going to be given in the word file - Essay Example In the course of the last two centuries, the global national incomes have significantly increased resulting in exceptionally his living standards at least as compared to retrospective civilizations. The main reason behind this exponential increment in the quality of life can be attributed to among other things the efficiency in the extraction of energy from the environment. Humanity has achieved unprecedented level of efficacy owing to technological advancement, which makes it easy for people to easily convert raw resources into inputs. Various Geologic processes and atmospheric systems such as ecosystem and animal or human societies are inherently tied together through a series of transformational energy activities operating through a complex series of feedback mechanisms that allow them to be self-regulating. The process of energy transformation thus functions throughout the biosphere so that energy can be degraded and materials can be organized in hierarchical systems of constantl y increasing spatial temporal scales (Odum and Odum, 2001). The first and cardinal rule of energy conservation states that one can either neither create nor destroy energy, at the end of the day, the energy lost is directly proportional to the among that is gained. The underlying supposition is that one cannot get anything for nothing and the consistency of energy is often described in diagrams in which the energy flowing must be accounted for within the boundaries either in form of output or storage. Secondly, the energy in an isolated system at equilibrium will investable increase over time, the key transformative agent for energy is work; therefore, dispersed energy is incapable of doing any work thus resulting to degradation in the system. The connection between energy efficiency and economic growth has been demonstrated and restated for centuries in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s economic arena, as the countries that exploit and
Friday, February 7, 2020
Vase with Fifteen Sunflowers - Research Paper Example The artwork titled Vase with Fifteen Sunflowers has a significant historical background. It is not a masterpiece that came into existence by chance or due to the sheer whimsy of the artist. It is a well though presentation with a clear intellectual intent and vivid content. This painting is a part of the series Sunflowers (or Tournesols in French). It belongs to a set of paintings executed in Arles in August, 1888. In this set of paintings, we can see bouquets of sunflowers (occasionally in combination with orange hued dahlias) in various styles, contours, and positions. Discussing the historical background of this painting more intricately, it cannot be neglected that the series Sunflowers was painted mainly in two parts. According to Stolwijk and Veenenbos, the first part of the series was executed in Paris in 1887. The second part was executed in Arles during 1888. Many of the Sunflowers artworks were sold or auctioned to various art collectors and museums all over the world. But the fourth version, i.e., Vase with Fifteen Sunflowers, did not leave the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s estate at least in his lifetime. Ã¢â¬Å"Vincent began his series of sunflower paintings to enliven the studio of his Yellow House, but from the beginning they always meant more to him than simple decoration. Vincent hoped that his sunflower series would prompt discussions with his guests about art and illuminate for them the aesthetic experience of painting in the south.Ã¢â¬ Historically, Van Gogh was influenced by his dear friend, Gaugin, at certain stages of his painting career. In the late 19th century, many of his artworks were sold or auctioned to the collectors and museums in the countries like Britain and USA through Gaugin. Thanks to the enthusiasts like Gaugin and several other admirers, we can today see Vase with Fifteen Sunflowers at the National Gallery, London. Contextually, Tellegen (42-45) holds that the environment and culture of Paris also had a profound effect on the painter. The simplicity of this artwork is the main attribute to its artistic value. In Van GoghÃ¢â¬â¢s words, as stated by Mancoff (66), the artwork was Ã¢â¬Å"a picture all in yellowÃ¢â¬ . We can note only a few touches of green in the branches and stems and blue bordering lines of the table and the vase. Various shades of yellow color were used in the painting. However, this did not give it a pale look. On the contrary, it became a lively masterpiece. Furthermore, th is picture does not belong to any complex genre of paintings. It is simply a still life work. A still life work is that where the painter obtains his idea from the surroundings. Unlike portraits, it may not be an intricate visualization of a real model or subject. Still life paintings may attain high levels of both reality and imagination. In the artwork I am discussing now, it is still not clear enough that whether the painter used some material, model object while painting it or not. In this way, the painting becomes simply intriguing and thought provoking in its genre and time. Part I.D When I looked at this masterpiece, I could see a bunch of sunflowers in a vase. The vase is on a table, seemingly in the front of a plastered wall. The sunflowers in the lower part of the bunch are strangely drooping down. Although two sunflowers at the lowest regions of this floral assortment do not face the spectator directly, they leave a lively impression. Most of the other sunflowers can be s een in a front view orientation. The lines that have been drawn to create the flowers are generally curved
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Attachment Psychology Essay Developmental Psychology Early Social Development: Attachment Attachment Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ An emotional bond between two people. It is a two-wayÃ process that endures over time. It leads to certainÃ behaviours such as clinging and proximity-seeking andÃ serves the function of protecting the infant. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Primary attachment figure Ã¯ ® The person who has formed the closest bond with a child,demonstrated by the intensity of the relationship. UsuallyÃ the biological mother, but other people can fulfil the role. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Learning theory Ã¯ ® A group of explanations which explain behaviour in termsÃ of learning rather than any innate or higher orderÃ tendencies. Mainly used by behaviourists who rather focusÃ their explanations purely on what behaviour they observe. Learning Theory Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) Unconditioned Stimulus (US) food Ã¢â â Unconditioned Response (UR) pleasure Ã¢â â Neutral Stimulus (NS) Ã¢â¬â the feeder Ã¢â â Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Ã¢â¬â food from a feeder Ã¢â â Conditioned Response (CR) Ã¢â¬â pleasure/attachment Learning Theory Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Operant Conditioning Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Reinforcement Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ When doing something results in a pleasantÃ consequence, the behaviour is more likely to be produced. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Punishment Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ When doing something results in an unpleasantÃ consequence, the behaviour is unlikely to be produced. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Dollard and Miller (1950) explain attachment using operant conditioning: Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ When an infant is fed it reduces discomfort and increases pleasure, this serves as a reward and is the primary reinforcer. The person supplying the food is associatedÃ with avoiding discomfort and is the source of reward whichÃ becomes the secondary reinforcer. Attachment occursÃ because the child seeks the person who supplies theÃ reward. Evaluating the Learning Theory Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Strengths It can provide adequate explanations of how attachments form. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Behaviourists argue that since we are made up of the same building blocks of stimulus/response environments experiments done on animals are safe to generalize to human behaviour. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Weakness Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ It may be attention and responsiveness from the caregiver that is the primary reinforcer, not food. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Learning theory is largely based on studies with non-human animals. Human behaviour may be similar in many ways but learning theory does not consider higher order thinking and emotions that can influence behaviour. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Harlow (1959) demonstrated that it is not food but the level of contact and comfort the infant receives that increases attachment levels. The use of young rhesus monkeys were used to demonstrate this. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ 60 babies were studied in Glasgow and found that attachment was higher to the person who was most responsive and who interacted with them more (Schaffer and Emerson,1964). Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Cant explain the importance of sensitivity in attachment. BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s Attachment Theory (1969) Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ ELEMENTS OF BOWLBYÃ¢â¬â¢S ATTACHMENT THEORY: Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Attachment is adaptive and innate Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is an evolutionary theory because it sees attachment as a behaviour that adds to its survival andÃ ultimately its reproductive value. Having attachmentÃ capabilities is an innate drive, similar to imprinting, that has long term benefits ensuring it stays close to its caregiver. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Background on the Theory of Evolution Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Adaptive behaviours are behaviours that increase theÃ likelihood of survival and reproduction. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Natural selection is the continuation of these adaptive traits within the animal to increase chances of survival. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Sexual selection is the ability to reproduce, not just survive. Adaptive genes that lead to possessing traits to assist inÃ reproduction increases sexual selection. BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s Attachment Theory Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Sensitive Period Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ A biologically determined period of time during the second quarter of the first year is the most crucial period in which attachments can be made. Once missed then it is more difficult for a child to make attachments and demonstrate social difficulties. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Caregiving is adaptive Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Not only attachment but also caregiving is adaptively innate. Social releasers from the infant give signals to the caregiver (smiling, crying, etc) to take care of it. Attachment is the innate system in babies and caregiving is the innate system in adults. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Secure base Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Having a secure attachment provides a child with a secure base in which to explore the world from. It fosters independence, not dependence. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Monotropy and hierarchy Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Infants form a number of different attachments but has one particular bias towards a very special one called the primary attachment, this is called monotropy. Even with secondary attachments, this hierarchy of attachments recognizes the importance of a primary attachment figure (PAF). The PAF is one that responds most sensitively to the childs social releasers. Secondary attachments are important, without them, children tend to lack social skills. BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s Attachment Theory Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Internal working model Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ A mental model of the world that enables individuals to predict and control their environment. The internalÃ working model based on attachment has severalÃ consequences: Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ In the short-term it gives the child insight into the caregivers behaviour and enables the child to influenceÃ the caregivers behaviour so that a true partnership can be formed. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ In the long-term it acts as a template for all future relationships because it generates expectations aboutÃ how people behave. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ The continuity hypothesis Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ The idea that emotionally secure infants go on to beÃ emotionally secure, trusting and socially confident adults. Evaluating Attachment Theory Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Strengths Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Lorenz (1952) supports that imprinting is innate as the goslings imprinted on the first thing they saw moving, which was Lorenz. Research shows that once the sensitive period has passed and no attachments are formed, children display social difficulties with peers. If attachment and caregiving are an important biological function as Bowlby suggests then they would be found universally. Tronick et al (1992) studied an African tribe in Zaire and found despite tribal responsibility for raising kids a PAF is present. This is also evidence of monotropy. Schaffer and Emerson found that the more quickly a caregiver responded to a childs needs and the more interaction they had led to a stronger level of attachment. This interaction is important as it is not enough to have something to cuddle but to actually be cuddled back builds a stronger attachment. The Minnesota longitudinal study (2005) found that continuity between early attachment and later emotional/social behaviour. Infants classified as secure were later rated highest for social competence, less isolated, more empathetic and more popular. Evaluating Attachment Theory Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Weaknesses Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Multiple attachments, according to psychologists, are as equally important. There are no primary or secondaryÃ attachments, all attachments are integrated into one singleÃ working model. However, a review the research points to theÃ hierarchical model as being predominant (Prior and Glaser, Ã¯ ® 2006). An alternative explanation to the continuity hypothesis exists, known as the temperament hypothesis. This is the belief that children form secure attachments simply because they have a more Ã¢â¬ËeasyÃ¢â¬â¢ temperament from birth, whereas more innately difficult children a more likely to form insecure attachments. The infants temperamental characteristics shapes a mothers level of responsiveness. Thomas and Chess (1977) identified infant personality types as easy, difficult and slow-to-warm-up. Belsky and Rovine (1987) found a link between physiological behaviours and later attachments types. The more calm and less anxious (aspects of temperament) an infant was the more likely they were to develop secure attachments. Types of Attachment Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ The Strange Situation (Ainsworth and Wittig, 1969) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QTsewNrHUHU Aim: to see how infants behave under situations of stressÃ with the introduction of a stranger and the separation ofÃ the parent. This tests stranger anxiety and separationÃ anxiety and also the infants willingness to explore with its secure base. Procedure: a 99 research room marked off into 16 squaresÃ was used. The procedure consists of 8 episodesÃ¢â¬ ¦ MEMORISE THEM!!! Data is collected by a group of observers that recordedÃ what the infant was doing every 15 seconds. ObserverÃ noted the type of behaviour and level of intensity on aÃ scale of 1-7. Types of Attachment Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ The Strange Situation Findings: Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ AinsworthÃ combined data from several studies toÃ make 106 middle-class infants observed. Similarities and differences were found in the wayÃ the infants behaved. In terms of similarities, it wasÃ noted that episode 2 onwards exploratoryÃ behaviour decreased while crying increased. Proximity-seeking and contact-maintainingÃ increased during separation and when strangerÃ appeared. Finally, contact-resisting and proximityavoiding behaviours rarely occurred towards the caregiver prior to separation. Types of Attachment Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ The Strange Situation Findings: Ã¯ ® Ainsworth found differences in three main types of children. Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Insecure-avoidant: this is a style of attachment characterising those children that tend to avoid social interaction and intimacy with others. Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Secure attachment: this is a strong and contented attachment of an infant to his or her caregiver which develops as a result of sensitive responding by the caregiver to the infants needs. Insecure-resistant: this is a style of ambivalent attachment characterisingÃ children who both seek and reject intimacy and social interaction. Main and Solomon (1986) re-analysed the strange situation video tapes and created a fourth attachment type: Ã¯ ® Insecure-disorganised: these infants lack a coherent and consistent strategy for dealing with the stress of separation. Secure % of infants (Ainsworth, 1978) % of infants (Van Ijzendoorn et , 1999) Insecure avoidant Insecure resistant Insecure disorganised 66% 22% 12% XXX 62% 15% 9% 15% Evaluating Types of Attachment Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Strengths Ã¯ ® AinsworthÃ¢â¬â¢s Strange Situation technique has given psychologists a means to understand and study attachment which can lead to new future findings. Ã¯ ® Intervention strategies have been developed to strengthen caregiving behaviour and attachments types. The Circle of Security Project (Cooper et al, 2005) which teaches caregivers to recognise signs of distress showed a decrease in disordered caregiving and an increase in secure attachment types. It has proven to be experimentally valid as its construct validity has been demonstrated by other studies supporting the four types of attachments and its predictive validity has been demonstrated in correlations between early attachment types and later behaviours. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Its findings are also consistent which makes them reliable. Using interobserver reliablity methods, Ainsworth found almost perfect agreement at . 94 between the raters (1.0 is perfect). Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Weakness Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Or does it lack validity, because it is intended to measure the attachment type of an infant, BUT does it really simply measure the quality of a particular relationship? Main and Weston (1981) claim it is measuring one relationship instead of something innate within an individual. Ã¯ ® Evaluating Types of Attachment Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Effects of attachment types Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s continuity hypothesis would predict that a childÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour later in life would be effected by specific attachment types they develop. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Prior and Glaser (2006) found that in later childhood, if as infants they developed a secure attachment type, they wouldÃ be less emotionally dependent and possess moreÃ interpersonal harmony. Infants with the other three typesÃ would be more aggressive, negative withdrawn in laterÃ childhood. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ It would also effect you in your adult romantic lives as well. Hazen and Shaver (1987) conducted the Ã¢â¬ËLove QuizÃ¢â¬â¢ whichÃ asked questions about early experiences and current loveÃ experiences and found that there were characteristicÃ patterns of later romantic behaviour associated with eachÃ early attachment type. Evaluating Types of Attachment Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Factors that influence attachment type Ã¯ ® Sensitivity Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Ainsworth developed the Maternal Sensitivity Scale to rate mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour such as sensitivity and insensitivity to infants signals. The scale found: SecurelyÃ attached infant ObservedÃ Mothers bx Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Insecurely attached infant Avoidant infant Resistant infantÃ more sensitive,Ã cooperating Unresponsive toÃ crying lessÃ affectionate More rejecting andÃ less attentionÃ giving Preoccupied withÃ routine activities whenÃ holding infant Maternal reflective functioning Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Some studies have shown low correlations between measures of sensitivity and strength of attachment. Slade et al (2005) found the ability to understand what someone else is thinking or feeling may be more important. Temperament Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ May play a role as previous research indicates, but it is unclear. Cultural Variations in Attachment Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ KNOW the definitions of culture, cultural variations and the difference between individualistic and collectivistic cultures (pg.45) Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Cross-cultural Similarities Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ AinsworthÃ¢â¬â¢s Uganda study (1967) Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Tronick et al (1992) study on the African tribe in Zaire Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Fox (1977) infants in Isreali kibbutz raised byÃ nurses when tested in the Strange SituationÃ appeared equally attached to both caregivers,Ã except in the reunion behaviour where theyÃ showed greater attachment to their mothers. Cultural Variations in Attachment Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Cross-cultural Differences Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Grossman and Grossman (1991) found that German infants appear more insecurely attached rather than secure. This may be due to the different childrearing practices as German culture involves keeping some interpersonal distance from the parent and infant. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Takahashi (1990) used the Strange Situation on a group of 60 middle-class infants in Japan and found similar rates of secure attachment. However, the infants showed no evidence of insecure-avoidant and high rates of insecureresistance (32%). Different childrearing practices can explain the difference for in Japan the infants are rarely ever separated from their parents which is why they would be more distressed than their American counterparts. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Conclusions Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ These studies suggest that the strongest attachments are still formed with their mothers and that there are differences in attachment that can be related to differences in cultural attitudes. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Meta-analysis study by Van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988) examined over 2000 Strange Situation classification studies in 8 countries. They found the variation between countries and culture were small with secure attachment being the most common in all countries followed by insecure-avoidant except in Japan and Israel. Variations within cultures however were greater. In conclusion the findings appear to be similar to that found in the US and this supports the view that attachment is an innate and biological process. Also data collected on different subcultures should not be generalised to be representative of a particular culture. Criticisms of Research on Cultural Variations Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Culture bias Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Rothbaum et al (2000) argued that attachment theory andÃ research is not relevant to other countries because it is rooted in American culture. For example, the sensitivity hypothesis reflects western ideas of autonomy whereas in Japan sensitivity is about promoting dependence. The continuity hypothesis states thatÃ secure infant attachments create more competent adults, however, this Ã¢â¬ËcompetenceÃ¢â¬â¢ is defined in terms of individuation. The secure base hypothesis in the west explains secure attached infants as independent and confident exploring whereas in Japan theyÃ promote dependence and the concept of amae and so this canÃ explain why insecure-resistant behaviours are more typical. Rothbaum concludes that psychologists should produce a set of indigenous theories that are explanations of attachment that are rooted in individual cultures with a small group of universal principles (infant need for protection) but mostly with childcare practices relating to cultural values. Rothbaum was challenged by Posada and Jacobs (2001) which shows that attachment theory does apply to most cultures. Criticisms of Research on Cultural Variations Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Criticisms of cross-cultural research Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ TestsÃ of procedures used may not be equally validÃ in the country and may make the culture appearÃ Ã¢â¬ËinferiorÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËabnormalÃ¢â¬â¢. This is an example ofÃ imposed etic. This is when a research method isÃ used in one culture even thought it was designed toÃ be used in another (intelligence tests or observations). Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ The group that was tested may not beÃ representative of the culture and yet researchersÃ might make generalisations about the whole cultureÃ or even the whole country. Disruption of Attachment Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Effects of Separation Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Spitz and Wolf (1946) observed 100 children in an institution became severely depressed after a few months. Skeels and Dye (1939) found similar children scored lower on intelligence tests. Bifulo et al (1992) found that negative effects of deprivation may occur later in life. When 249 women who had lost their mothers before they were 17 were studied, it was found that they were twice as likely to develop depressive/anxiety disorders later in life. Robertsons (1967-73) made films observing the effects of separation in children: Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® When given a high level of emotional care and similar structures to that of their home life, the children exhibited some signs of distress, however, slept well and did not reject their PAF when they were reunited. Some were even reluctant to part with the foster mother which is a sign of a good emotional bond. John, however, was in a nursery and not given such attention. He became withdrawn and gave up on proximity seeking bx. When he was reunited with his mother he rejected her for months and demonstrated outbursts of anger towards her. Disruption of Attachment Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Physical and Emotional Disruption Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ As the research evidence shows differences in the way physical and emotional attention is given can produceÃ negative effects in children. However, there are studiesÃ that show these ill effects can be reversed. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Sigvardsson (1979) studied over 600 adopted children in Sweden and at the age of eleven, 26% of them wereÃ classified as Ã¢â¬Ëproblem childrenÃ¢â¬â¢. However in a follow up study, ten years later they were no worse off than theÃ average population. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ So when alternative emotional care is provided, ill effects of separation can be reversed. However, for someÃ children disruption of attachment leads to permanentÃ difficulties. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ To criticise the validity of the research consider that they are based on case studies. Weakness of case studies areÃ that they are based on generalisations and they depend onÃ objectivity of the observers and are prone to observer bias. Failure to Form Attachment Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Isolated children Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Privation is the lack of having any attachments due to the failure to develop such attachments early in life. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Genie Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® The Czech twins Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Locked in a room by her father until she was 13. When discovered she could not stand erect or speak. She was disinterested in people and never recovered socially. Locked away by their step-mother until the age of 7. Were looked after by their sisters and by 14 had normal social and intellectual capabilities. By 20 they had above average intelligence and excellent social skills. Evaluation Ã¯ ® Was unclear whether or not Genie was retarded at birth or if she ever formed an attachment with her mother. The Czech twins may have formed attachments to each other to compensate for complete lack of care. It is difficult to reach firm conclusions based on only these cases. Failure to Form Attachment Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Institutional Care Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Multiple studies show that the effects of institutionalisation within children is acute distress. Longitudinal studies have been conducted to see what long term effects are caused by institutionalisation. Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Hodges and Tizard (1989) followed a group of 65 British children from early life to adolescence. Children have been place in an institution from before they were 4 months old. Children have not yet formed attachments at this age. An early study found that 70% of the children were not able to care deeply for anyone. The children were assessed regularly up to the age of 16. Some children remained while most were adopted or restored with their original families. The restored children were less likely to develop an attachment with their mothers but the adopted ones were as closely attached to their adopted parents as the control group. However, both groups had problems with peers and showed signs of disinhibited attachment. These findings suggest that early privation had negative effects on the ability to form relationships even when given good subsequent emotional care. If failure to develop attachments after the sensitive period occur it can have an irreversible effect on emotional development. Failure to Form Attachment Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Effects of Privation and Institutionalisation Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Attachment disorder Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ This has been recognised as a psychiatric condition and has been included in the DSMIV. There are two kinds of attachment disorder, inhibited and disinhibited. Children with an attachment disorder have no PAF, cant interact or relate to others before the age of 5 and have experienced severe neglect or frequent changes in caregivers. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Poor parenting skills Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ HarlowÃ¢â¬â¢s monkeys that were raised with surrogate mothers went on to become poor parents. Also, Quinton et al (1984) found similar findings when he compared 50 women who had been raised in institutions. When the women were in their 20Ã¢â¬â¢s the ex-institutionalised mothers were experiencing extreme difficulties acting as parents. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Deprivation dwarfism Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Physical evidence by Gardner (1972) that institutionalised children are physically underdeveloped, potentially caused by stress hormones. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Evaluation Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ In the study of Romanian children, one-third recovered well despite not establishing a PAF prior to the sensitive period. Therefore, privation alone cannot explain negative outcomes. This suggests that damage occurs when there are multiple risk factors (Turner and Lloyd, 1995). Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Not sure if the children failed to form attachments early in life. Maybe they did and the problems they experienced later were more related to rejection. Impact of Day Care Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Day Care Ã¢â¬â the form of temporary care not given by the family or someone well known to the child and usually outside of the home. Social development Ã¢â¬â the aspect of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s growth concerned with the development of sociability, where the child learns to relate to others and with the process of socialisation, the child learns social skills appropriate to the society. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Negative effects on social development Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Meta-analysis from findings of 88 studies supports BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s research that prolonged separation from the PAF leads to maladjustment. Violata and Russell (1994) concluded that regular day care for more than 20 hrs a week had an unmistakable negative effect on socio-emotional development, behaviour and attachment of young children. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ NICHD in USA conducted a longitudinal study of over 1000 children. Parents were interviewed regarding the effects of regular day care. The study showedÃ that the more time a child spent in day care, regardless of quality, the adults rated them as more disobedient and aggressive (NICHD, 2003). The children in day care were 3 times more likely to demonstrate behavioural problems than children that were cared by their mothers. Melhuish (2004) found evidence that children with high levels of day care in the first two years of development had elevated risks of developing anti-social behaviours. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ The Minnesota longitudinal study demonstrated the more securely attached infants are the more popular with peers they become. So therefore, the more insecure an infant, more peer related problems could be expected. Belsky and Rovine (1988) assessed attachment in children in day care and found that were more likely to be insecurely attached compared to children at home. Impact of Day Care Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Positive effects on social development Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Good day care provides plenty of social stimulation, whereas, children living at home may lack social interactions. Brown and Harris (1978) found depressed mothers contributedÃ their low moods to being isolated at home with children. Depressed mothers are likely to form insecure attachments with their children which would have a negative effect on their children. Therefore, the independence gained with having a child in day care is a way to prevent this. Clarke-Stewart et al (1994) studied 150 children and found they were consistently more compliant and independent. The EPPE followed 3000 children in pre-schools and found increased sociability (Sylvia et al, 2003). Day care exposes children to their peers thus enabling them to develop social strategies (negotiate and make friends). Field (1991) found a positive correlation between the amount of time in day care and the number of friends children have once they enter school. Also, those that started day care before 6 months were more sociable than those that started later. Evaluating Research on Day Care Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Weaknesses of research on day care Ã¯ ® When evaluating the research, one must consider the circumstances under which one can find positive or negative outcomes. Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Prodromidis (1995) found no correlation between Swedish children in day care and aggression. Freidman from NICHD explains the aggression study actually shows that day care children may be more aggressive than non-day care, but still 83% of children in day care between 10 -30 hours a week show no signs of aggression. Second important finding from the NICHD research is that the mothers sensitivity to the child, higher maternal education and income all play a more important role in decreased behavioural problems than the amount of time in day care. Finally, the findings are not causal. The data cannot show that day care caused aggression only that there is a link between the two. Therefore, the data suggests that childrens development is more strongly affected by factors at home than those in day care (Belsky et al, 2007). Evaluating Research on Day Care Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Weaknesses of Research on Day Care Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Cannot apply a cause relating to peer relations asÃ well, only a link. For example, shy and unsociable children have mothers that are shy andÃ unsociable, therefore, its possible that moreÃ outgoing parents/children that go to day care. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ A lot of research supports the idea that day careÃ alone has no direct effect on development andÃ that there are other factors involved. Gregg et alÃ (2005) analysed findings from the Children of theÃ 90Ã¢â¬â¢s study and concluded that for the majority ofÃ children, maternal employment in their first 3Ã years of life had no adverse effects on behaviour. Evaluating Research on Day Care Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Mediating Factors Ã¯ ® Quality of Care Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Individual Differences Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® As the quality of care decreases it is expected that the attachment type will become poorer. NICHD study (1997) found that low-quality care was associated with poor social development. As parents have different interests in their child, day care staff are less invested and therefore provide a different kind of attention. This is reflected in Howes and Hamilton (1992) findingsÃ that secure attachmentsÃ occurred in only 50% of day care staff but 70% in mothers. The NICHD study found the more secure a childÃ¢â¬â¢s attachment level is the better they cope with time spent in day care. However, another study showed that insecure children coped better than secure children (showed more aggressive bx) in day care. ChildÃ¢â¬â¢s age and number of hours Ã¯ ® Ã¯ ® Gregg et al (2005) found that negative effects were more likely to be found in children starting day care before 18 months of age. However, the magnitude of these effects was small. Clarke-Stewart et al (1994) found no difference in attachment between spending a lot of time in day care (more than 30 hours) with those that spend a little time (less than 10 hours). Implications of Research into Attachment and Day care Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Attachment Research Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Attachment research has shown that when separation occurs, negative effects of this separation can be avoided if substitute emotional care can be provided and links to the PAF are made available. This research has changed the way hospitals handle visiting arrangements and the way institutional care is provided. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ A second implication is the way the adoptions process is managed allowing babies to be adopted earlier strengthening child/parent attachments (Singer, 1985). Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Another implication is the improvement of parenting skills, ie, Circle of Security, which improves infant/mother relationships. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Finally, attachment research has been used to improve day care quality focusing on the importance of secondary attachment figures. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Day Care Research Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ As research shows, high quality care leads to positive outcomes. What is highquality care? Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Low child-staff ratios Ã¢â¬â 3:1 is ideal for sensitive care to be given Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Minimal staff turnover Ã¢â¬â allows for consistent care and decreases anxiety Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Sensitive emotional care Ã¢â¬â only 23% of carers demonstrated highly sensitive care, 50% was moderate care and 20% were emotionally detached. Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ Qualified staff Ã¢â¬â qualified managers lead to better social development Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¯ To ensure high-quality care, legal standards are implemented relating to staff ratio to age of the child, minimum qualifications of staff, Ofsted inspections and finally the sure Start programme.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Marcus Mosiah Garvey was a powerful black revolutionary and race leader who influenced a great many people in his time and continues to do so through reggae music. Many of Marcus Garvey's lessons and ideals have found a voice in the lyrics of conscious reggae musicians past and present. From internationally famous musicians such as Bob Marley and Burning Spear, to the music and words of The Rastafari Elders, reggae musicians have found inspiration in Marcus Garvey. For many reggae musicians, their work is about more than music, it is a tool for teaching the masses. Peter Tosh at a concert in California told the audience the reason why he was there."Don't think I come here for entertainment. I and I come to flash lightening, earthquake, and thunder in these places of destruction and unrighteousness."2 Tosh and many musicians like him are taking reggae to a higher level, one where the musicians are prophets of Garvey and Rasta. Much of the teachings of reggae are based on a Rastafarian view, as this is the religion of many of the conscious reggae musicians that preach the Garvey message. Rastafarianism owes a lot to Marcus Garvey, as he is credited as the founder. The religion was born on the words"Look to Africa for the crowning of a Black king."3 They waited and in 1930, the prophecy was fulfilled when, Ras Tafari Mekonnen was crowned emperor of Ethiopia and took the name Haile Selassie. Working from the bible and their own interpretations of it, the Rastafarians found evidence to support their claim and a religion was born. Marcus Garvey is considered part of the Rastafari Trinity, and"is second only to Haile Selassie,"4 the Rastafari God. Whether singing directly about Marcus Mosiah Garvey, or about Rastafarianism, reggae musicians are helping to spread the teachings of this black prophet and revolutionary to millions of music listeners all over the world. Marcus Garvey was born in 1887 in the St. Ann's Parish in Jamaica. He came from a large, poor family and due to lack of money, when he was fourteen Garvey left school and became a printer's apprentice. By the age of eighteen he had become a master printer. Garvey had always been a quick learner and when he became the foreman of a printing company in Kingston, the capital of Jamaica,"he continued his education by reading extensively, taking advantage of the company library."5 However, Marcus Garvey's political feelings soon got in the way when the workers went on strike in 1909.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Ensuring that the look and feel of the store is as per guidelines/standards Ensuring/ reporting Inventory and Stock availability as per the norms to prevent stock-outs Provide suggestions /feedback to improve store productivity People Development / Team Management: Acting as a mentor and trainer for store staff To ensure daily roistering & briefing to inbound & outbound store staff Customer Experience: Manage staff allocation based on demand at point in time Personally step in to handle demanding customers Provide suggestions for improvements in CE 4. A. On Diversity and Cultural spread in Africa, As Africa consists of 53 countries, to operate successfully it is important to understand the dynamics of each country, including differences in culture, language and especially regulations. Bharti would do well to put in place as few expatriates as possible and have most of its top management from Africa. b. On Infrastructure sharing and cost / capital issues, The biggest driver of network sharing will be the shift in approach of the biggest operators, who had been unwilling to share network to sustain competitive advantage. There is visible network sharing in the markets of Nigeria, Ghana and South Africa, and that this is likely to pick up in other markets. c. On Bharti AirtelÃ¢â¬â¢s Minute Factor Model, Network sharing and IT outsourcing would help operators bring down costs. While costs could trend down, however they will be higher than in India because of some of the structural costs caused by power shortage and poor infrastructure. 5. Bharti Airtel has a history of making first moves and emerging as the winner just because of that. This is what built the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success in India, where it remains the top MNO and second-largest fixed-line operator. In fact, thanks to the massive market it serves at home, at the time it acquired the Zain portfolio in March 2010 Airtel was reckoned to be the fifth largest mobile operator in the world on a proportional subscriber basis, putting it behind the likes of China Mobile, Vodafone Group, American Movil and Telefonica, but ahead of China Unicom. As has been widely covered for over a year now, Airtel has been looking at Africa as a new growth market. While it has a deal with Vodafone for the Channel Islands, Africa is the only other territory outside the Indian subcontinent (including Bangladesh and Sri Lanka) that the company has entered. The commonalities are compelling: similar markets, needs and infrastructure. The realities on the ground are somewhat more challenging: logistics, legislative compliance and serious local competition being foremost. The logistics of infrastructure in Africa are an equal challenge for all MNOs. That is a given. Where Airtel might have been overly optimistic is in hoping its Africa model would run similarly to its success in India, based on a first-to-market approach and having some leverage to overcome legislative obstacles. Unfortunately, while Airtel has a 30-year history of being first in India (with pushbutton phones, cordless phones and then mobile), they were not first in Africa. There were major EU, Middle East and South African players there ahead of them. In fact, AirtelÃ¢â¬â¢s African expansion is largely thanks to its takeover of KuwaitÃ¢â¬â¢s Zain mobile operations in 15 countries. This was a beachhead, not a conquest. Zain only held dominant market share in a few countries. Going up against market leaders such as MTN of South Africa, Airtel applied a strategy of extensive cost cutting. This followed on what it achieved in India, cutting a deal with Ericsson for per-minute fees (rather than upfront payment) that enabled very low-cost call rates from the outset. Airtel has an all-Africa, five-year deal in place with Ericsson for network management that offers similar advantages. Elsewhere, Airtel is engaged with Nokia Siemens Networks and Huawei, not keeping all its eggs in one basket, of course. As a Plan B, possibly following on the indecisive outcome of AirtelÃ¢â¬â¢s low-cost invasion, the company has previously been negotiating a takeover of or (maybe) a joint venture with MTN itself. How this putative deal is described depends on which company is talking. This has been going on for some four years without a definitive ending. Even if it never happens, it is a signpost of just what Airtel would consider to get its Africa operations truly established.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Effective communication skills are important in everyday life, from home to work and even social outings. Working with trauma patients it is vital to have effective communication skills. In particular those healing from child sexual abuse, sexual violence and domestic abuse (Sanderson, 2013). The American Psychological Association (2015) defines trauma as and Ã¢â¬Ëemotional response to a terrible event such as rape...reactions include; flashbacks, nausea, unpredictable emotions, strained relationships and headachesÃ¢â¬â¢. This research essay will examine how verbal encouragers, active listening and providing a sense safety are all skills that are important to a Sexual Assault Worker and why they are imperative. As well as aiming to understandÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A beneficial way of avoiding this is the use of verbal encouragers. According to Hazelwood Shakespear-Finch (2011) Ã¢â¬Å"HhmmÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"AahhÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"RightÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"OohhÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"OkayÃ¢â ¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"AhaÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"MmhmÃ¢â¬ are just some of the short phrases or words a practitioner may say to confirm they are listening to their client. With the occasional use of these verbal encouragers, it sidesteps any unnecessary confusion that may hinder the client practitioner relationship. Non-verbal encouragers can also make it easier for people to speak. Simple eye contact, nods, smiles and facial expressions can leave people feeling relaxed and more willing you talk (Dawn, 2002). In situations where there are cultural differences verbal and non-verbal encouragers are not as positive. Take for example a client who is an Aboriginal Elder and the practitioner who is a young Caucasian Social Worker that was unaware of Aboriginal cultural protocols and etiquette. In Western culture it is respectful and a sign of active listening to look a person in the eye the whole time you are conversing with them. However for Aboriginals it is complete reverse, when you donÃ¢â¬â¢t look straight into an Aboriginal personÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes you are showing them that you respect them. Situations such as these can make both parties feel uncomfortable (Laguerre, Shanahan, Ferguson, 2014). Active Listening is a key communication skill that is vital when taking to truma affected clients Hazelwood Shakespear-Finch (2011) describe it
Friday, December 27, 2019
How did Christianity become a major world religion? Saint Paul had a huge impact on the development of Christianity. He spread the word of Christianity throughout the Roman Empire by visiting synagogues, preaching, and writing letters. Without Saint Paul, Christianity would not have been a major religion of the world, instead, another would have likely taken its place. Saint Paul, originally named Saul, was a crucial part in the development of Christianity. Paul, who was born in Tarsus, Cilicia, grew up Jewish and was trained as a rabbi (Adcock). Paul eventually converted to Christianity, but before he did, the future of the religion was looking very slim. Rome had made it illegal to practice Christianity. Paul was a pious Jew, so his conversion to Christianity surprised many of his followers. They viewed him with much suspicion and treated him with hostility. Paul was dedicated to his new life and made it his mission to spread Christianity throughout the eastern provinces of the Rom an Empire and eventually to Rome itself. Paul made two separate journeys throughout the Mediterranean. He preached about the message of Jesus to many and sent his letters to the people he had not visited. Paul saw that his new faith had a message for everything and everyone. By converting to Christianity, St. Paul has saved Christianity from extinction, has written crucial letters about his faith, has preached to hundreds of people, has spread Christianity throughout the Roman Empire, has causedShow MoreRelatedChristianity And The Modern World Essay1636 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIdeologies has played a major part in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, especially cultural ideologies. An ideology in and of itself is defined by Merriam-WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s as Ã¢â¬Å"the set of ideas and beliefs of a group or political partyÃ¢â¬ . Ideologies play such huge roles in our lives since they are essentially how some people identity themselves. These ideologies can be political, social, economic, cultural and more. They all define who we represent in our everyday lives as individuals. Likewise, a major religious ideology thatRead MoreChristianity And Its Impact On The Development Of Christianity1283 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesChristianity was born and flourished in an empire where the common language was Latin and Greek. Two important people like Paul and Constantine further influenced and were a major part of the development of Christianity. The history of the Jews leading up to the time of Jesus had a major impact on the development of Christianity. 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